21 July 2024
Jet stream variability driven by ocean-atmosphere coupling

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The Significance of Jet Stream Variability

The Earth’s climate is a complex system influenced by various factors, one of which is the interaction between the oceans and the atmosphere. This interaction, known as ocean-atmosphere coupling, plays a crucial role in shaping climate patterns around the globe. Researchers from Kyushu University have recently uncovered how this coupling can impact the variability of jet streams, which are fast-flowing air currents in the atmosphere that play a key role in weather patterns.

Understanding Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling

Ocean-atmosphere coupling refers to the exchange of energy between the sea surface temperatures and the atmosphere. Changes in sea surface temperatures can influence the atmosphere, and vice versa. This exchange of energy can lead to the formation of teleconnection patterns, where climate conditions change over large regions. In the tropics, ocean-atmosphere coupling results in phenomena like the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, which can affect weather patterns globally. However, the impact of this coupling in the extratropical regions, particularly on jet stream variability, is less understood.

Research Insights on Extratropical Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling

A recent study conducted by researchers at Kyushu University, in collaboration with other institutions, delved into the effects of extratropical ocean-atmosphere coupling on jet stream variability in the Northern Hemisphere. By modeling the interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere, the researchers found that coupling in extratropical regions can lead to more meandering jet streams. These meandering jet streams are associated with extreme weather events, highlighting the importance of understanding the mechanisms behind jet stream variability.

Related Video

Published on: September 27, 2019 Description: Mike Bettes explains jet streams and how they affect our weather.
What Are Jet Streams?

Implications for Climate Modeling and Projections

The research findings shed light on how extratropical ocean-atmosphere coupling intensifies teleconnection patterns and impacts atmospheric circulation. By quantifying the coupling effect and its influence on principal modes of variability, such as the Pacific/North American and North Atlantic Oscillation patterns, the study provides valuable insights for improving climate projections. Understanding how ocean-atmosphere coupling affects jet stream variability can aid in better predicting extreme weather events and refining climate models to address the challenges posed by the climate crisis.

Links to additional Resources:

1. https://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/ 2. https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/ 3. https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/

Related Wikipedia Articles

Topics: Jet stream, Ocean-atmosphere coupling, El Niño-Southern Oscillation

Jet stream
Jet streams are fast flowing, narrow, meandering air currents in the atmospheres of the Earth, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. On Earth, the main jet streams are located near the altitude of the tropopause and are westerly winds (flowing west to east). Jet streams may start, stop, split into...
Read more: Jet stream

Community Climate System Model
The Community Climate System Model (CCSM) is a coupled general circulation model (GCM) developed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Department of Energy (DoE), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The coupled components include an atmospheric model...
Read more: Community Climate System Model

El Niño–Southern Oscillation
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a global climate phenomenon that emerges from variations in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical Pacific Ocean. Those variations have an irregular pattern but do have some semblance of cycles. The occurrence of ENSO is not predictable. It affects the climate of much...
Read more: El Niño–Southern Oscillation

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