24 July 2024
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Immigration and Welfare States: Debunking the Myth of Threats

In a recent study conducted by Ph.D. candidate Emily Anne Wolff, the relationship between immigration and welfare states was explored, challenging the common belief that immigration poses a threat to the solidarity upon which redistribution within welfare states relies. The research focused on the post-war period, a time of significant welfare expansion, decolonization, and migration. By examining the social inclusion of postcolonial migrants from Indonesia, Algeria, and the Caribbean in the Netherlands, France, and the U.K. between 1945 and 1970, Wolff found that the impact of immigration on welfare states is more complex than often assumed.

Understanding Inclusion in Welfare States

Wolff’s research introduced a framework for evaluating inclusion that emphasized different dimensions. One key dimension was the access individuals had to material welfare, such as social assistance or social security. It was crucial to assess not only eligibility for these benefits but also whether individuals actually received them. Another dimension focused on the respect and treatment individuals received, highlighting the importance of being treated as moral equals. This aspect became particularly significant as instances emerged where individuals had material wealth but were subjected to demeaning or degrading conditions, forcing them into unwanted cultural practices or jobs.

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In studying the postcolonial migrants in France and the Netherlands, Wolff observed how policymakers and the broader national community constructed identities for specific migrant groups, labeling them as either deserving or undeserving of welfare. This construction of identity influenced the inclusion of these groups in the welfare state. For example, in France, Algerians known as harkis, who had supported French military efforts during the Algerian independence war, were formally eligible for social assistance but were often redirected to occupations like forest ranger or cattle herder. This redirection was based on racialized and inaccurate assumptions about the harkis’ backgrounds and abilities.

Conversely, the U.K. took a somewhat different approach to migrants from the Caribbean, offering them formal eligibility for social assistance on equal terms. However, civil servants and politicians used this eligibility to justify exclusion under immigration reforms in the 1960s and 70s. These contrasting examples underscored the varying responses of different countries to postcolonial migration and the implications for welfare state inclusion.

Impact of Historical Context on National Identity

The aftermath of the Second World War and decolonization significantly disrupted the European understanding of national identity and welfare state inclusion. The war, coupled with scientific reports debunking race as a biological concept, eroded the racial hierarchy that had previously underpinned European societies. This upheaval created confusion about national identity and who deserved access to welfare within these evolving contexts.

The changing landscape of national identity fueled by historical events necessitated a reevaluation of who belonged to the national community and who was entitled to welfare benefits. The dissolution of the racial order that had governed the empire-state created a void that required new sources of identity formation, leading to shifts in attitudes towards migrants and welfare inclusion.

Challenging Assumptions about Immigration and Welfare States

There is a prevailing concern in academic and public discourse regarding the impact of immigration on welfare states, often centered around the idea that increased immigration leads to decreased solidarity and resource sharing within society. However, Wolff’s research challenges this assumption by highlighting that diversity in societies is not inherently detrimental to welfare states.

The study suggests that the perceived impact of immigration on welfare states is not solely due to cultural or racial diversity but rather stems from the active efforts to define and police national identity boundaries. The constant negotiation of who is considered part of the national community and who is excluded plays a significant role in shaping welfare policies and inclusion mechanisms.

Wolff’s research sheds light on the complex interplay between immigration, national identity, and welfare states. By debunking the myth that immigration poses a direct threat to welfare states, the study emphasizes the need to critically examine the construction of identity and inclusion within societal frameworks. Understanding the nuances of these dynamics is essential for fostering inclusive welfare systems that cater to diverse populations and promote social cohesion.

Links to additional Resources:

1. www.migrationpolicy.org 2. www.pewresearch.org 3. www.oecd.org

Related Wikipedia Articles

Topics: Immigration, Welfare state, National identity

Immigration
Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country of which they are not usual residents or where they do not possess nationality in order to settle as permanent residents. Commuters, tourists, and other short-term stays in a destination country do not fall under the definition of immigration...
Read more: Immigration

Welfare state
A welfare state is a form of government in which the state (or a well-established network of social institutions) protects and promotes the economic and social well-being of its citizens, based upon the principles of equal opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for citizens unable to avail themselves...
Read more: Welfare state

National identity
National identity is a person's identity or sense of belonging to one or more states or one or more nations. It is the sense of "a nation as a cohesive whole, as represented by distinctive traditions, culture, and language". National identity may refer to the subjective feeling one shares with...
Read more: National identity

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