13 June 2024
Nanosheet brain imaging: A revolutionary window to the mind

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Nanosheet Brain Imaging: Revolutionizing Neuroscience Research

The human brain, with its billions of neurons working in concert, is a marvel of complexity that enables higher-order functions like cognition and complex behaviors. Understanding how neural activity is coordinated across different brain regions is crucial for studying these functions. Traditional brain imaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and two-photon microscopy, offer valuable insights but have limitations in providing detailed information over extended periods and across multiple brain regions.

The Breakthrough: NIRE Method for In Vivo Brain Imaging

A team of researchers led by the Exploratory Research Center on Life and Living Systems (ExCELLS) and the National Institute for Physiological Sciences (NIPS) has introduced a groundbreaking method for in vivo brain imaging called the “nanosheet incorporated into light-curable resin” (NIRE) method. This innovative approach utilizes fluoropolymer nanosheets covered with light-curable resin to create larger cranial windows, enabling researchers to observe neuronal structures and activities in awake mice on a large scale and over long periods.

The lead author, Taiga Takahashi, highlights the superiority of the NIRE method over previous techniques, as it allows for the creation of cranial windows extending from the parietal cortex to the cerebellum. By using biocompatible nanosheets and transparent light-curable resin, researchers can achieve greater transparency and durability, minimizing distortions caused by the movements of awake mice during imaging sessions.

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Published on: March 4, 2024 Description:
Innovative nanosheet method revolutionizes brain imaging for multi scale and long term studies
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Implications and Applications of the NIRE Method

The NIRE method offers high-resolution imaging capabilities with sub-micrometer resolution, making it ideal for studying the morphology and activity of fine neural structures. Importantly, this method enables imaging for more than 6 months with minimal impact on transparency, facilitating long-term research on neuroplasticity at various levels—from cellular to network levels. This opens up new avenues for investigating processes like maturation, learning, and neurodegeneration.

Corresponding author Tomomi Nemoto emphasizes that the NIRE method represents a significant advancement in neuroimaging, providing researchers with a powerful tool to explore neural processes that were previously challenging to observe. By creating large cranial windows with prolonged transparency and minimal motion artifacts, this method enables large-scale, long-term, and multi-scale in vivo brain imaging. Researchers can now delve into neural population coding, neural circuit remodeling, and higher-order brain functions that rely on coordinated activity across different brain regions.

Future Prospects and Enhancing Understanding of Brain Function

The NIRE method offers a platform for investigating neuroplastic changes at various levels over extended periods in awake animals engaged in diverse behaviors. This innovation opens up new possibilities for enhancing our understanding of the brain’s complexity and function. By uncovering the mysteries of neural processes associated with growth, development, learning, and neurological disorders, the NIRE method holds promise for advancing neuroscience research and shedding light on the intricacies of the human brain.

Links to additional Resources:

1. Nature.com: Innovative Nanosheet Method Revolutionizes Brain Imaging for Multi-Scale and Long-Term Studies 2. ScienceDirect.com: Nanosheet-Based Brain Imaging: A Novel Approach for Multi-Scale and Long-Term Studies 3. PMC.nih.gov: Nanosheet-Based Brain Imaging: A New Era for Multi-Scale and Long-Term Studies

Related Wikipedia Articles

Topics: Brain imaging, Neuroscience, Nanosheet

Neuroimaging
Neuroimaging is the use of quantitative (computational) techniques to study the structure and function of the central nervous system, developed as an objective way of scientifically studying the healthy human brain in a non-invasive manner. Increasingly it is also being used for quantitative research studies of brain disease and psychiatric...
Read more: Neuroimaging

Neuroscience
Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system (the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system), its functions and disorders. It is a multidisciplinary science that combines physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, developmental biology, cytology, psychology, physics, computer science, chemistry, medicine, statistics, and mathematical modeling to understand the fundamental and...
Read more: Neuroscience

Nanosheet
A nanosheet is a two-dimensional nanostructure with thickness in a scale ranging from 1 to 100 nm. A typical example of a nanosheet is graphene, the thinnest two-dimensional material (0.34 nm) in the world. It consists of a single layer of carbon atoms with hexagonal lattices.
Read more: Nanosheet

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