14 June 2024
Spread the love

Understanding Membrane Protein Interactions: A Breakthrough in Biomedical Research

Proteins play a crucial role in the functioning of cells within the human body. They often interact with each other to form complexes, influencing the fate of cells. To comprehend the biological functions of these proteins, researchers focus on analyzing protein-protein interactions (PPI). Among the various types of proteins, membrane proteins are particularly significant, constituting over 30% of human genes and playing essential roles in cell functions. Understanding membrane protein interactions is vital for unraveling the mechanisms underlying protein function.

Challenges in Analyzing Membrane Protein Interactions

Despite the importance of studying protein-protein interactions, the analysis of membrane protein interactions, especially extracellular protein-protein interactions (exPPIs) of living cells, has faced challenges. Traditional methods have limitations, and the development of new technologies to analyze these interactions has been slow. Proximity labeling methods have emerged as a promising approach for large-scale PPI analysis. However, existing methods targeting the extracellular region of membrane proteins often involve molecules with cellular toxicity, necessitating the exploration of safer systems for living cells.

The Development of FabID Technology

In a significant breakthrough, the Proteo-Science Center at Ehime University has introduced a novel technology known as FabID. This technology utilizes the proximity-dependent biotin labeling enzyme AirID, which biotinylates lysine residues of proteins in close proximity. FabID represents a milestone in the analysis of extracellular protein-protein interactions, particularly in living cells. By fusing AirID to the antigen recognition site of an antibody that targets the extracellular domain of membrane proteins, FabID enables the direct targeting of proteins expressed by cells for exPPI analysis.

Related Video

Published on: February 7, 2021 Description:
Lecture 08, concept 07: Interactions between membrane proteins and lipids
Play

Implications for Drug Discovery and Biomedical Research

The application of FabID technology in analyzing the extracellular protein-protein interactions of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has yielded groundbreaking results. By combining biotin labeling with FabID and mass spectrometry, researchers identified numerous novel EGFR interacting proteins with potential as new drug targets. This discovery is significant not only for advancing our understanding of receptor biology but also for identifying new targets for drug development.

Furthermore, FabID has enabled the observation of ligand-dependent and drug-dependent exPPI changes in EGFR, shedding light on how these interactions dynamically evolve when EGFR binds to ligands or drugs. This new insight has the potential to revolutionize the development of commercial drugs targeting membrane proteins. The ability to capture these dynamic changes in protein interactions opens up avenues for identifying new drug targets and enhancing the efficacy of existing treatments.

The development of FabID technology represents a significant leap forward in the study of membrane protein interactions. By enabling the analysis of exPPI in living cells and uncovering novel drug targets, FabID holds immense promise for the future of biomedical research and drug discovery. This innovative approach not only enhances our understanding of protein interactions but also paves the way for the development of more effective therapeutic interventions targeting membrane proteins.

Links to additional Resources:

1. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41420-021-00991-3 2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982222002021 3. https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(22)00901-X

Related Wikipedia Articles

Topics: Proteins, Protein-protein interactions, Membrane proteins

Protein
Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins...
Read more: Protein

Protein
Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins...
Read more: Protein

Membrane protein
Membrane proteins are common proteins that are part of, or interact with, biological membranes. Membrane proteins fall into several broad categories depending on their location. Integral membrane proteins are a permanent part of a cell membrane and can either penetrate the membrane (transmembrane) or associate with one or the other...
Read more: Membrane protein

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *