20 June 2024
Quantum dark states enhance atomic clocks

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Understanding Quantum Dark States in Advancing Atomic Clocks

In the realm of precision timekeeping, atomic clocks stand out as the most accurate devices known to humanity. However, physicists are continuously striving to enhance their precision even further. One promising avenue for this improvement lies in the realm of quantum dark states and their ability to reduce noise in atomic clocks.

The Significance of Spin-Squeezed States in Clock Atoms

Spin-squeezed states represent a special kind of entangled quantum state where particles within a system work together to counteract their inherent quantum noise. These states present a unique opportunity for advancing quantum-enhanced metrology, enabling more precise measurements than traditional methods. However, generating spin-squeezed states in clock atoms, especially in desired optical transitions with minimal external noise interference, has proven challenging.

One method to create spin-squeezed states involves placing clock atoms inside an optical cavity—a configuration of mirrors where light can bounce back and forth multiple times. Within this cavity, atoms can synchronize their photon emissions, leading to a collective burst of light that surpasses the brightness achievable by individual atoms. This phenomenon, known as superradiance, can either foster entanglement or disrupt the desired quantum state, depending on its application.

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Unveiling the Potential of Dark States in Quantum Metrology

In a collaborative effort between JILA and NIST Fellows, Ana Maria Rey and James Thompson, researchers delved into the realm of multilevel atoms to harness superradiant emission in unique ways. By inducing atoms to nullify each other’s emissions within an optical cavity, the team discovered a method to create dark states that are not only dark but also spin-squeezed. These findings hold the promise of unlocking opportunities for generating entangled clocks, thereby pushing the boundaries of quantum metrology.

Over several years of research, Rey and her team investigated the potential of forming dark states within a cavity to exploit superradiance. Dark states are configurations where light emissions interfere destructively, resulting in no light emission. By preparing atoms in specific initial states within the cavity, these quantum states can resist the effects of superradiance and emit light outside the cavity at a slower rate.

Novel Methods to Achieve Highly Entangled Spin-Squeezed States

In their recent studies published in Physical Review Letters and Physical Review A, Rey and her team unveiled two novel approaches to prepare atoms in highly entangled spin-squeezed states. One method involved energizing atoms above their ground state with a laser and placing them at specific points on the superradiant potential, known as saddle points. At these points, atoms reshaped their noise distribution, becoming highly squeezed.

The second approach focused on transferring superradiant states into dark states. By identifying unique points where atoms were on the brink of becoming unstable, the researchers leveraged the interplay between superradiance and external laser stimulation to induce spin-squeezing. This transfer mechanism not only preserved the reduced noise characteristics of the squeezed states but also ensured their longevity without external laser intervention.

The findings of these studies hold immense potential for improving atomic clocks by mitigating the limitations posed by superradiance through the creation of dark entangled states. Whether storing these entangled states as memory or integrating them into clock sequences for quantum-enhanced measurements, the ability to generate dark states with reduced noise characteristics opens up new horizons in quantum metrology.

Links to additional Resources:

1. nature.com/articles/s41534-022-00551-7 2. aps.org/publications/apsnews/202203/quantum-dark-states-lead-to-an-advantage-in-noise-reduction.cfm 3. sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/03/220315144416.htm

Related Wikipedia Articles

Topics: Atomic clock, Quantum metrology, Superradiance

Atomic clock
An atomic clock is a clock that measures time by monitoring the resonant frequency of atoms. It is based on atoms having different energy levels. Electron states in an atom are associated with different energy levels, and in transitions between such states they interact with a very specific frequency of...
Read more: Atomic clock

Quantum metrology
Quantum metrology is the study of making high-resolution and highly sensitive measurements of physical parameters using quantum theory to describe the physical systems, particularly exploiting quantum entanglement and quantum squeezing. This field promises to develop measurement techniques that give better precision than the same measurement performed in a classical framework....
Read more: Quantum metrology

In physics, superradiance is the radiation enhancement effects in several contexts including quantum mechanics, astrophysics and relativity.
Read more: Superradiance

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